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To Para on the "Ships starting with P" page.
Manager: A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi, Bergen
Delivered in March-1921 from NV Werf Voorheen Rijkee & Co., Rotterdam (160) as San Paulo to D/S A/S Otto Thoresens Linie (Otto & Thor Thoresen A/S), Oslo. 376.4' x 51.5' x 21', 2 x 6 cyl. 4 TEV DM (Werkspoor N.V., Amsterdam), 2300 bhp. Sold in Jan.-1922 to A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi, Bergen and renamed Para. (I've been told she was the sistership of Estrella). Operated on Den norske Syd-Amerika Linje services (owned by Det Bergenske Dampskibsselskab, A/S. J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi and Fred. Olsen & Co.).
Captain: Arne Sømoe - on board for 24 years and 7 months, from the time she was delivered in March-1921.
A personal story sent to me states that Para was mostly in service U.S.A.-England with, among other things, ammunition and explosives (Christian S. Christensen).
Another story of someone who served on board as engineer from early 1940 until May-1941, Michael Onarheim - text is in Norwegian only.
Guestbook message from the grandson of Aksel Studsrød, who served on this ship. He had previously experienced the attack on Kosmos II. He also served on Morgenen.
Her voyages are listed on these original images from the Norwegian National Archives:
Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.
(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).
Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each (where the Convoy column is left blank, it means convoy is not known).
As will be seen when going to Page 1 of the archive documents, it looks like Para had been to Norway shortly before the German invasion (Apr. 9-1940). In fact, this is confirmed in Michael Onarheim's story; he says they were at a yard in Oslo to repair the starboard engine in March - she arrived Bahia from Norway on Apr. 12, later making voyages to Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Freetown, before proceeding to the U.K. For this voyage, Para sailed in Convoy SL 35, which left Freetown on June 8 and arrived Liverpool on the 26th; Para arrived Avonmouth that day, cargo of wheat and offal. The Norwegian Eli and Stirlingville are also included in this convoy. About a month later she's listed, together with Caledonia, Carmelfjell, Heien, Ibis, Iris, John P. Pedersen, Lyra and Suderholm, in Convoy OB 187, which originated in Liverpool on July 21 and dispersed on the 25th. Direct links to both these convoys can be found within the Voyage Record above. No destination is given for Para when in OB 187, but going back to the archive document, we learn that she arrived Hampton Roads on Aug. 6, having started out from Milford Haven.
With a cargo of pig iron, she headed back to the U.K. on Aug. 24 in Convoy HX 68 from Halifax, and the following month she appears, along with Hjalmar Wessel, in Convoy OA 221, leaving Methil on Sept. 28, dispersed Oct. 2. Again, her destination is not given, but the archive document mentioned above states she arrived Durban on Nov. 5. Her last convoy voyage that year was made in Convoy SL 59, departing Freetown on Dec. 15, arriving Liverpool Jan. 5-1941 - Para, cargo of sugar, stopped at Clyde the day before. Hidlefjord is also listed. (Both these convoys are available via the links provided in the table above).
At the beginning of Febr.-1941, we find her, together with Marit, in Convoy OB 282, originating in Liverpool on Febr. 3, dispersed Febr. 8. Her destination is given as Gambia River; she arrived Freetown on Febr. 25 (having started out from Clyde Febr. 3), Lagos on March 4, proceeding from there to Calabar, with arrival March 6. Later that month she's listed, with Andrea Brøvig, Egda and Storanger, in Convoy SL 70, leaving Freetown on March 29, arriving Liverpool on Apr. 23 (cargo of palm kernels). According to the Memorial for Seamen in Stavern, Norway (link at the bottom of this page), Para lost a crew member the following month. Engineer Assistant Robert Svendsen is commemorated, said to have died in Liverpool on May 5-1941 in a "war related accident" (this incident is also mentioned in Michael Onarheim's story, saying the 2 of them had paid off Para together). The book "Våre falne", which lists Norwegian WW II casualties, says he was killed during an air raid, and adds that his brother Samuel was lost with D/S Hørda in March that same year. He's listed as 3rd engineer in the crew list for that ship. It'll be noticed, when following the link to Convoy SL 70 in the Voyage Record above, that several ships that had been in this convoy were damaged in this air raid in Liverpool.
Together with Brant County, Madrono, Stiklestad, Strinda and Torvanger, Para later joined Convoy OB 327, departing Liverpool May 28, dispersed June 1, Para arriving St. Michaels on June 7, continuing to Lagos 2 days later (Page 1). On June 3, she had rescued 24 people from one of the lifeboats of the British tanker Inversuir, which had been torpedoed and shelled by U-48 (later sunk by U-75). There's more information on this attack via the external link provided at the end of this page. This ship had also started out from the U.K. in Convoy OB 327 (3 other ships were also sunk).
Para can later be found among the ships in Convoy SL 84, which left Freetown on Aug. 15-1941 and arrived Liverpool Sept. 8. Para's destination was Oban, cargo of W. A. produce. With Lynghaug and Strinda (see also Hallanger), she subsequently joined Convoy OS 7, departing Liverpool on Sept. 23, arriving Freetown Oct. 14, returning the following month in Convoy SL 93, which left Freetown on Nov. 19 and arrived Liverpool on Dec. 10. Primero is also listed in this convoy - again, see the external links provided in the Voyage Record. Para's voyages in this period are shown on Page 2.
She now started voyaging to another part of the world, joining the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 55*, which left Liverpool on Jan. 8-1942 and dispersed on the 26th, Para arriving Halifax Jan. 28. Don, Senta, Skottland and Vinga are also listed in this convoy. She headed back to the U.K. on Febr. 16 in the slow Convoy SC 70 from Halifax, bound for Avonmouth with general cargo, arriving March 9, later joining the westbound Convoy ON 80*, together with Novasli and Tore Jarl. The convoy originated in Liverpool on March 27 and arrived Halifax on Apr. 15, but this time, Para was bound for New York, where she arrived Apr. 18, having sailed from Belfast Lough on March 28. The following month she was in Convoy SC 84, leaving Halifax on May 14, arriving Liverpool on the 29th. She now headed in the other direction again with Convoy ON 102*, which left Liverpool on June 9 and arrived Halifax on the 25th but Para was bound for New York again, arriving there on June 27. She had again been in the company of other Norwegian ships, namely Ada, Bernhard, Boreas, Grey County, Inger Elisabeth, Ingerfire, Norse King, Rena, Rio Branco, Solitaire, Trolla and Vest.
Her subsequent voyages are listed on Page 2 and Page 3 of the archive documents - convoy information for some of these can be found in the Voyage Record. As will be seen, she appears to have spent quite a long time in Baltimore at the beginning of 1943.
In March-1943, Arnold Hague has included her, along with Carrier, Fjordheim and Gudvor, in the slow Convoy SC 123*, departing New York on March 14, arriving Liverpool Apr. 3. With Borgholm, Hjalmar Wessel and Sneland I, she later joined the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ONS 4*, which left Liverpool on Apr. 13 and arrived Halifax May 5. Her destination is given as Bathurst, N.B.; according to Page 3 of the archive documents, she arrived New York on May 7, proceeding to Philadelphia 2 days later - Bathurst is not mentioned. She headed back to the U.K. on May 26 in Convoy SC 132 from Halifax and arrived Swansea on June 13.
At the beginning of July we find her in Convoy ONS 12*, originating in Liverpool on July 3, but she's said to have been involved in a collision and returned to port with damages (Milford Haven), later joining Convoy ONS 13*, which started out in Liverpool on July 14 and arrived Halifax on the 29th. Her destination is given as Portland, Maine; Page 3 says she arrived Boston on July 31, her arrival Portland is not given on the document; A. Hague indicates she had joined the westbound Convoy ON 193* for the last couple of days of her voyage. This convoy had sailed from Liverpool on July 16 and arrived New York on the 31st. All 3 convoys had several Norwegian ships as follows: Fana, Garnes, Gausdal, Hjalmar Wessel, Iron Baron, Mui Hock, Norvarg, Petter II, Suderøy and Tropic Star in ONS 12, and Astrid, Geisha (Commodore vessel), Harpefjell, Hiram, Maud, Norlom, Rena and Sandviken in ONS 13, while Bralanta, Chr. Th. Boe, Fagerfjell, Fernwood, Geisha, Harpefjell, Herbrand, Hiram, Idefjord, Maud, Meline, Norlom, O. B. Sørensen, Samuel Bakke, Sandviken, Santos, Skaraas, Skjelbred, Stiklestad, Thorhild, Thorshov and Tungsha, as well as the Panamanian Norlys (Norwegian managers) are listed in ON 193 (in other words, some of these also transferred from ONS 13 to the ON convoy).
On Sept 15-1943, I have her in Convoy SC 142 from Halifax (Rear Commodore in Gausdal), cargo of sugar for Greenock, where she arrived Oct. 1 (Page 3), and later that month she sailed in the other direction with Convoy ONS 21*, originating in Liverpool on Oct. 22, arriving Halifax Nov. 5. Para, however, was again bound for New York, where she arrived on Nov. 8, having started out from Clyde on Oct. 23. Ferncliff, Gausdal, Henrik Ibsen, Maud, Norhauk, Petter II, Sommerstad and Suderøy are also named in ONS 21. Page 4 shows her subsequent voyages, with some convoy details in the table above.
At the beginning of 1944 we find her with a cargo of sugar for London in Convoy SC 151, which left Halifax on Jan. 14 and arrived Liverpool on the 31st. Para, which served as Commodore Vessel on this occasion, stopped at Loch Ewe that day. Eglantine and Rose are named among the escorts - see SC convoy escorts. About a month later she returned across the Atlantic with Convoy ONS 30*, which originated in Liverpool on Febr. 27 and arrived Halifax March 13; Para arrived New York on March 16, having started out from Oban on Febr. 28. Evanger, Henrik Ibsen, Sommerstad and Veni are also listed in this convoy. With a cargo of sugar and military vehicles, Para later joined Convoy HX 291 from New York on May 10, which included several other Norwegian ships, among them Heranger, Høyanger (Vice Commodore), O. B. Sørensen, Vav, Villanger, Stirlingville, Minerva, Velox and others (some also joined from Sydney, C.B. and are not yet included on the page - will be updated, see Ships in all HX convoys). Para's destination is given as Greenock, where she arrived on May 26 (Page 4).
With Dageid, Fagerfjell, Heranger, Høyanger (Vice Commodore), Petter, Strinda, Thorhild, Vanja, Villanger and Østhav, she subsequently joined the westbound Convoy ON 240*, originating in Liverpool on June 10, arriving New York on the 28th. In Aug.-1944, she sailed in Convoy HX 303 with 16 other Norwegian ships, namely Tanafjord, Dalfonn, Noravind, Atlantic, Sommerstad, Skotaas, Geisha (Vice Commodore), Thorhild, Petter, Stirlingville, Rena, Romulus, Titanian, Mui Hock, Fjordaas and Norse Lady. Para was bound for Hull with a cargo of sugar on that occasion, arriving there on Aug. 31, later heading back across the Atlantic in Convoy ONS 33*, along with Cetus, Chr. Th. Boe, Dagrun (returned), Drammensfjord, Mui Hock, Peik, Rena, Romulus and Titanian (from Liverpool Sept. 29, to Halifax Oct. 14). She was bound for New York, where she arrived on Oct. 16, having joined from Loch Ewe. Her subsequent voyages are shown on Page 5 - see also the Voyage Record above.
Early the following year, we find her (together with Nyhorn) in Convoy MKS 77*, which left Gibraltar on Jan. 15-1945 and arrived Liverpool on the 23rd - Para started out from Casablanca on the 15th. She later made a voyage to Curacao, having joined Convoy OS 113/KMS 87* (link in table above). This convoy departed Liverpool on Febr. 26 and split up on March 1. According to A. Hague, Para had detached from the convoy on Febr. 28, proceeding alone to Curacao, where she arrived March 18, continuing to Trinidad a few days later (again, see Page 5). A. Hague has her returning to the U.K. with a cargo of sugar in the slow Convoy SC 174*, departing Halifax on Apr. 28, arriving Liverpool May 14 - Para arrived Milford Haven on the 15th; in other words, VE Day was celebrated at sea. Danio, Gausdal, Hilda Knudsen, Norse Lady, Peik, Stirlingville, Veni and Vera are also included in this convoy.
From Page 6, we learn that she got to go home to Norway in Sept.-1945. This document shows her voyages to Apr.-1946.
Again, for information on voyages made in between those mentioned here, please see the various archive documents as well as A. Hague's record above.
Sold in Sept.-1956 to Giovanni Cappola, Genova, Italy and renamed San Nicolisio. Sold in 1957 to Cia. de Nav. San Fruttuso, S.p.A. (Gennaro Jacomino), Palermo, Italy. Broken up in Italy 1961.
Related external links:
Back to Para on the "Ships starting with P" page.
Other ships by this name: In Aug.-1959 another Para was delivered to A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi, Bergen, built in Naples. This ship was sold to Germany in 1968 and renamed Mariva. Sold again in 1972 and renamed Feiyueh for owners in Hong Kong, later sailed under the name Cheng De for Chinese owners from 1977. The company later had another Para. This was originally Thor Dahl's 5711 gt Thorsdrott, built in Sandefjord in 1964, which was sold to Haugesund in 1972 and renamed Vikfrost. Renamed Para for Mowinckel in 1977, later Audalia (Audacia?) of Montevideo from 1979. Broken up in Taiwan in 1985.
The text on this page was compiled with the help of: "Nortraships flåte", J. R. Hegland, "The World's Merchant Fleets 1939", R. W. Jordan, A. Hague's database, "Våre falne", and misc. (ref. My sources).