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M/S Danio
Updated July 1-2011

To Danio on the "Ships starting with D" page.

Post war picture when named Canasta (see post war info at the end of this page).
From Sverre Johansen's postcard collection.

Manager: Clemeth Dann, Oslo
Tonnages (at delivery):
3496 gt, 2189 net, 6000 tdwt. Remeasured Jan.-1940, 3537 gt / 6011 tdwt.
Dimensions: 348.7' x 50.1' x 24.1'.
Machinery: 6 cyl. 2tev 642nhp (D. Rowan & Co. Ltd. Greenock). From 1929: 6 cyl. 4tev Kincaid B & W 1720ihp.

Delivered in March-1924 from William Hamilton & Co. Ltd., Port Glasgow as Baron Dalmeny to H. Hogarth & Sons Ltd., Glasgow. Purchased by Dann's Skibs-A/S (Clemeth Dann), Oslo in Apr.-1937 and renamed Danio.

Captain: Ernst I. Hagvoll, later Hans Birger Hjertaker (from July-1945, previously Danio's 1 mate).

Her voyages are listed on these original images from the Norwegian National Archives:
Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4 | Page 5

Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.

Voyage Record
From March-1940 to June-1945:

(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).

Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each.
(Please be aware that some of the external convoy listings are incomplete).

Departure From To Arrival Convoy Remarks
1940 March 29 Rosario Dakar Apr. 18 Independent
May 14 Dakar Casablanca May 22 Independent
May 25 Casablanca Brest May 30 Independent
May 31 Brest Falmouth Bay May 31 Independent
June 5 Falmouth Bay Belfast Lough June 8 Independent
June 17 Belfast Lough OB 169 For New York City.
Dispersed in 46N 20 40W, June 22
June 22 Dispersed from OB 169 New York City July 5 Independent
July 16 New York City Holyhead Aug. 2 Independent
Aug. 2 Holyhead Liverpool Aug. 3 Independent
Sept. 1 Liverpool OB 207 Dispersed Sept. 6.
Convoy available at OB 207
(external link)
Sept. 6 Dispersed from OB 207 Windsor, N.S. Sept. 15 Independent
Sept. 24 Windsor, N.S. Halifax Sept. 26 Independent
Nov. 5 Halifax Halifax Nov. 7 Independent Put back
Nov. 10 Halifax Oban Nov. 25 HX 86
Nov. 28 Oban Methil Dec. 1 WN 45 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
Dec. 6 Methil Hull Dec. 8 FS 354 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
Left Hull Dec. 22
(Page 1).
Dec. 23 Humber Methil Dec. 25 FN 366 Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
Dec. 26 Methil Oban Dec. 30 EN 47/1 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Dec. 31 Oban OB 267 For New York City.
Dispersed in 53 30N 18 10W, Jan. 2-1941.
Convoy available at OB 267
(external link)
1941 Jan. 2 Dispersed from OB 267 New York City Independent Page 1 gives arrival Jan. 16
Febr. 5 New York City Halifax Independent Page 1 gives arrival Febr. 8
Febr. 13 Halifax HX 109 Straggled Febr. 21
See also ships in HX convoys
(more complete info)
Febr. 21 Straggled from HX 109 Belfast Lough March 4 Independent
March 7 Belfast Lough Holyhead Independent
March 11 Holyhead Liverpool March 11 Independent Missing voyages, Page 1
Apr. 12 Liverpool* Cardiff Apr. 13 Independent *See Page 1 above
Apr. 26 Cardiff Milford Haven Apr. 27 Independent
Apr. 27 Liverpool* OB 316 *From Milford Haven
(Page 1).
For Bermuda.
Dispersed May 5.
Convoy available at OB 316
(external link)
May 5 Dispersed from OB 316 Bermuda May 16 Independent
May 28 Bermuda Kingston June 2 Independent
June 18 Kingston Bermuda June 23 Independent
June 24 Bermuda BHX 135 Available at HX 135 below
June 29 Bermuda portion joined main convoy Liverpool July 12 HX 135
Aug. 25 Liverpool Liverpool Aug. 26 Put back.
Aug. 27 Liverpool ON 10 For New York City.
Dispersed Sept. 11.
Sept. 11 Dispersed from ON 10 New York City Sept. 15 Independent
Sept. 24 New York City Sydney, C.B. Sept. 28 Independent
Sept. 29 Sydney, C.B. Clyde Oct. 18 SC 47 Convoy will be added.
See ships in SC convoys
See also Page 2
Nov. 8 Clyde Freetown Nov. 28 OS 11 For Takoradi.
Convoy available at OS 11
(external link)
Dec. 4 Freetown Takoradi Dec. 9 ST 10 A. Hague says:
Assumed this convoy, arrival date agrees.
Available at ST convoys
(external link)
Dec. 14 Takoradi Lagos Dec. 17 Independent
Dec. 20 Lagos Accra Dec. 22 Independent
Dec. 30 Accra Takoradi Dec. 31 Independent
1942 Jan. 1 Takoradi Freetown Jan. 6 Independent
Jan. 15 Freetown Belfast Lough Febr. 5 SL 98 Convoy available at SL 98
(external link)
Febr. 7 Belfast Lough Avonmouth Febr. 9 BB 134 Convoy available at BB convoys
(external link)
Febr. 17 Avonmouth Milford Haven Febr. 18 Independent See also Page 2
Febr. 18 Milford Haven ON 68 For Halifax.
Dispersed March 9
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
March 9 Dispersed from ON 68 Halifax March 11 Independent
March 12 Halifax New York City March 15 Independent
May 8 New York City Capetown June 12 Independent
June 14 Capetown Aden July 4 Independent
July 4 Aden Port Sudan July 7 Independent
July 9 Port Sudan Suez July 12 Independent Left Suez July 31
(Page 2).
Aug. 3 Abu Zenima Aden Aug. 8 Independent
Aug. 16 Aden Capetown Sept. 5 Independent
Sept. 9 Capetown Trinidad Oct. 5 Independent
Oct. 9 Trinidad Gitmo Oct. 14 TAG 12 Convoy available at TAG convoys
(external link)
Oct. 23 Gitmo Baltimore Oct. 30 GN 14 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
Nov. 28 Baltimore New York City Dec. 1 Independent
Dec. 2 New York City Gitmo Dec. 9 NG 326 For Cristobal.
Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
Dec. 10 Gitmo Cristobal Dec. 13* GZ 15 *Page 3 gives arrival Dec. 15.
Convoy available at GZ convoys
(external link)
Dec. 21 Balboa Durban Febr. 2-1943 Independent
1943 Febr. 10 Durban DN 16 Dispersed Febr. 12.
Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Febr. 12 Dispersed from DN 16 Aden Febr. 28 Independent
Febr. 28 Aden Suez March 7 Independent Missing movements, Page 3
March 19 Suez Aden March 24 Independent
March 26 Aden Kosseir Independent
Apr. 3 Kosseir Aden Apr. 9 Independent
Apr. 10 Aden Capetown May 3 Independent
June 10 Capetown Durban June 14 CD 22 Convoy available via this page
(external link)
July 8 Durban DN 51 Dispersed, July 10.
Convoy available via link above
July 10 Dispersed from DN 51 Aden July 27 Independent
July 27 Aden Suez Aug. 3 Independent Left Suez same day
(Page 3 ).
Aug. 8 Port Said Alexandria Aug. 9 Independent
Aug. 10 Alexandria Tripoli, Libya Aug. 16 GUS 12 Convoy available at GUS convoys
(external link)
Sept. 1 Tripoli, Libya Malta Sept. 2
Sept. 3 Malta Algiers Sept. 7 GUS 14 Convoy available at link above
Sept. 12 Algiers Bizerta Sept. 14 KMS 25 Convoy will be added.
See ships in KMS convoys
Oct. 29 Naples Augusta Oct. 31 NV 6 Compare w/Page 3
Convoy available at NV convoys
(external link)
Nov. 2 Augusta Bone Nov. 5 GUS 20 Convoy available at GUS convoys
(external link)
Nov. 19 Bone Passed Gibraltar Nov. 23 MKS 31 (See both tables on the page)
Nov. 23 Passed Gibraltar (MKS 31) Rendezvoused with SL 140, Nov. 24
Nov. 24 SL 140 and MKS 31 joined up Barrow Dec. 7 SL 140/MKS 31 Convoy available at SL 140/MKS 31
(external link)
Dec. 14 Barrow ONS 25 For New York City.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ONS convoys
1944 Jan. 3 From ONS 25, joined XB 90B Cape Cod Canal Jan. 5 XB 90B Convoy available at XB convoys
(external link)
Jan. 5 Cape Cod Canal New York City Jan. 6 Independent
Jan. 7 New York City Boston Independent See also narrative below
Page 3 gives arrival Boston Jan. 10.
Apr. 13 Boston New York City Apr. 15 Independent
Apr. 21 New York City NG 430 Detached Apr. 28.
Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
Apr. 28 Detached from NG 430 San Juan, P.R. Apr. 30 Independent
May 4 San Juan, P.R. Macoris May 5 Independent Notional sailing date
May 10 Macoris Gitmo Independent
May 13 Gitmo New York City May 20 GN 132 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
June 2 New York City Loch Ewe June 19 HX 294
June 20 Loch Ewe Methil June 21 WN 597 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
June 22 Methil Southend June 24 FS 1491 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
See also Page 4
July 16 Southend Tyne July 17 FN 1420 Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
July 19 Tyne Methil July 20 FN 1422 Convoy available at link above
July 22 Methil Loch Ewe July 24 EN 411 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
July 25 Loch Ewe New York City Aug. 9 ON 246 Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Aug. 14 New York City NG 453 Detached Aug. 21.
Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
Aug. 21 Detached from NG 453 Macoris Aug. 23 Independent
Aug. 28 Macoris Puerto Plata Aug. 29 Independent
Aug. 31 Puerto Plata Gitmo Sept. 1 Independent
Sept. 5 Gitmo New York City Sept. 12 GN 155 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
Sept. 16 New York City Clyde Oct. 3 HX 309
Oct. 14 Clyde ONS 34 Detached Nov. 1.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ONS convoys
Nov. 1 Detached from ONS 34 Pugwash Nov. 2 Independent
Nov. 22 Pugwash Sydney, C.B. Nov. 24 Independent
Dec. 3 Sydney, C.B. Loch Ewe Dec. 16 SC 162
Dec. 17 Loch Ewe Methil Dec. 19 WN 662 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
Missing movements, Page 4
1945 Jan. 8 Methil Belfast Lough Jan. 12 EN 468 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Jan. 12 Belfast Lough ONS 40 For New York City.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ONS convoys
Jan. 29 From ONS 40, joined XB 144 Cape Cod Canal Febr. 1 XB 144 Convoy available at XB convoys
(external link)
Febr. 1 Cape Cod Canal New York City Febr. 2 Independent
March 17 New York City NG 496 Detached March 22.
Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
March 22 Detached from NG 496 San Juan, P.R. March 24 Independent
March 30 San Juan, P.R. Macoris March 31 Independent
Apr. 7 Macoris Gitmo Apr. 8 Independent
Apr. 13 Gitmo New York City Apr. 20 GN 199 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
Apr. 21 New York City Boston Independent
Apr. 22 Boston Halifax Apr. 24 BX 158 Convoy available at BX convoys
(external link)
Apr. 28 Halifax Liverpool May 14 SC 174 Convoy will be added.
See ships in SC convoys
May 29 Liverpool Montreal June 10 Independent See also narrative below,
as well as Page 4 & Page 5
(further voyages)

 Misc. Convoy Voyages: 
For information on voyages made in between those mentioned here, please see the documents received from the National Archives of Norway and A. Hague's record above. Follow the convoy links provided for further info; the Commodore's notes and/or narrative are also available for some of them and several Norwegian ships took part.

Some of the info in this narrative is based on 1st Mate (later Captain) Hans Birger Hjertaker's story. He had served as 3rd mate, later as 1st mate on M/S Margrethe Bakke early in the war. He joined Danio as 3rd mate in the fall of 1940, but became 1st mate later that year. His story can be found in the book "Sjøfolk i krig" by Leif M. Bjørkelund, which is based on interviews with seamen 50 years after the war, and includes many interesting personal stories (used for this site with the author's permission). It will be noticed that some of the dates, sequence of events and facts in his story do not quite match up with the information found in Danio's Voyage Record, but 50 years after the war, it would be understandable if the facts might have gotten a little mixed up.

From Page 1 of the archive documents, we learn that she was on her way from Rosario to Copenhagen when war broke out in Norway on Apr. 9-1940 (and Denmark invaded), but was diverted to Belfast, where she eventually arrived, via various other ports, on June 8.

Later that month, she's listed in Convoy OB 169. This convoy, which had originated in Liverpool on June 17, was disperesd on June 22, Danio arriving her destination New York independently on July 5. According to Arnold Hague she now made an independent voyage back to the U.K. on July 16, then joined Convoy OB 207 on Sept. 1, arriving Windsor, N.S. independently on Sept. 15, the convoy having been dispersed on Sept. 6. The Norwegian Hild (for Clyde only), Samnanger, Snefjeld and Thyra are also named - ref. external link provided in the table above. With a cargo of lumber for Hull, Danio headed back to the U.K. on Nov. 10 with Convoy HX 86 from Halifax (as will be seen, when going back to Page 1, she had previously spent quite a long time at Halifax). She arrived her destination on Dec. 8. Her next Trans-Atlantic voyage commenced at the end of that month, when she joined Convoy OB 267, which had originated in Liverpool on Dec. 30 and dispersed on Jan. 2-1941, Danio arriving New York independently on Jan. 16-1941. Cetus, Charles Racine (Commodore Vessel) and Thode Fagelund are also listed in this convoy, also available via the link in the table above.

Danio returned to the U.K. again in Convoy HX 109 from Halifax. As will be seen when clicking on the link to my page about this convoy, only the Bermuda portion is currently available, but the main portion will be added - see ships in all HX convoys. Other Norwegian ships in this convoy, which left Halifax on Febr. 13-1941, were Alaska, Augvald (sunk, follow the link for details) and Vivi. According to A. Hague, Danio became a straggler on Febr. 21, but arrived Belfast Lough safely on March 4. Page 1 gives her final destination as Manchester, and she later arrived there on March 16.

Together with the Norwegian Annavore, Sydhav and Taranger, A. Hague has now included her in Convoy OB 316, which originated in Liverpool on Apr. 28. Danio's destination is given as Bermuda, where she arrived independently on May 16, the convoy having been dispersed on May 5. Having made a voyage to Kingston, Jamaica, she returned to Bermuda and on June 24, we find her in the Bermuda portion of Convoy HX 135, bound for Liverpool with a cargo of sugar, with arrival July 12, subsequently remaining there for quite a long time - see Page 2. The following month, she's listed in the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 10, leaving Liverpool on Aug. 27. Danio, sailing in station 12, was bound for New York, where she arrived independently on Sept. 15 (convoy had been dispersed on the 11th). She headed back to the U.K. again at the end of that month with the slow Convoy SC 47*, which departed Sydney, C.B. on Sept. 29 and also included Berto, Bestik, Don, Fido, Heimgar, Ingertre, Marit II, Petter II (returned to port), Spes, Veni and Victo, while Eglantine is named among the escorts - see SC convoy escorts. With Dagrun, Tigre, Fana and Elg, she later joined Convoy OS 11 in Nov.-1941, voyaging from Clyde to Freetown and Takoradi with war stores; again, ref. link provided within the Voyage Record above.

In Jan.-1942 we find her going in the other direction with Convoy SL 98, which departed Freetown on Jan. 15 and arrived Liverpool on Febr. 5 (also available via the link provided in the table above). Danio's voyage is given as Lagos-Belfast, cargo of cocoa. Vest had also joined, but returned to port.

In the spring of 1942 she had taken on a general cargo, war materials and ammunition in New York, having previously crossed the Atlantic with the westbound Convoy ON 68*, which had originated in Liverpool on Febr. 19-1942 and dispered on March 9, Danio arriving New York, via Halifax, on March 15 (Aun, Carrier, Evanger (Commodore Vessel), Ingertre, Rio Verde and Tyr are also listed - the latter was sunk, follow the link for more info). According to 1st Mate Hjertaker Danio left New York alone for Suez in Apr.-1942 (however, it looks like this is an error, she left on May 8), arriving Cape Town in June, then continued to Durban before joining a convoy for Suez in July (again, it appears some of the facts have gotten somewhat mixed up here - see the Voyage Record as well as Page 2). Once her cargo had been unloaded she returned to the U.S. via the same route, arriving Baltimore in Nov(?). She then loaded General Grant tanks, jeeps, locomotives, aircraft, ammunition and general before proceeding in convoy to Cristobal via Cuba (passing the Panama Canal in Dec.) and then continued alone. She proceeded to Durban to join a convoy there, arriving Suez in Febr.-1943 (Voyage Record and Page 3 say March-1943). After cargo had been unloaded she took on board some kind of salt in the Suez Canal, before heading to the Red Sea to pick up a cargo of ore for South Africa. On July 27-1943 she was back in Aden, loaded a cargo of coal and continued to Suez.

The 1st mate says she was part of a convoy that arrived Salerno on Sept. 16-1943 (a week after the main allied attack on Italy started - note that A/ Hague has her, along with Facto, Måkefjell, Sirehei and the Panamanian Norvinn, in Convoy KMS 25* in this time period, voyaging from Algiers to Bizerta) and experienced the intense air raids there for several days, and also in Naples where he says she arrived on Oct. 13, but escaped both ordeals unharmed. Naples had been conquered by the allies on Oct. 1, but there were still some air attacks out in the bay. There's mention of her witnessing an American ship being hit by a bomb and sunk on Oct. 23. This may have been the James Iredell mentioned for Oct. 23 in "The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II" by Robert J. Cressman, see the link to "Hyperwar" at the end of this page. Hjertaker says Danio departed Naples on Oct. 28.

According to Arnold Hague, she made a voyage from Bone to Barrow with Convoy SL 140/MKS 31 the following month, cargo of iron ore. The SL convoy had originated in Freetown on Nov. 12 and joined up with MKS 31 from Gibraltar on the 24th, with which Danio joined, together with the Norwegian Slemmestad and Lynghaug - ref. link in the table above for more on the combined convoy. Danio arrived Barrow on Dec. 7 (Page 3).

After having taken part in the Italy campaigns, Danio re-entered North Atlantic service in Dec.-1943, joining the westbound Convoy ONS 25*, together with Brønnøy, Minerva, Sommerstad and Veni. This convoy originated in Liverpool on Dec. 15 and arrived Halifax on Jan. 3-1944, but Danio was bound for New York, where she arrived on Jan. 6. After several months at a yard in Boston, where she had arrived on Jan. 10, she headed to the Dominican Republic for a cargo of sugar for the U.K., joining Convoy HX 294 at the beginning of June (Commodore in Abraham Lincoln, Vice Commodore in Geisha). She crossed the Atlantic again at the end of July, having joined the westbound Convoy ON 246*, which originated in Liverpool on July 25, arrived New York Aug. 9 and also included Abraham Lincoln, Alaska, Atlantic, Brimanger (Commodore Vessel), Dalfonn, Dageid, Fernwood, Ivaran, James Hawson, Kaldfonn, Leiv Eiriksson, Petter, Skotaas, Strinda, Thorhild, Tiradentes, Toronto, Vardefjell, Velox and Ørnefjell. Her voyages in this period are shown on Page 4 - see also Voyage Record above.

In Oct.-1944 she was in Greenock, Scotland, having arrived from New York with Convoy HX 309 (Vice Commodore in Laurits Swenson), then travelled to Pugwash, Canada to pick up a cargo of lumber for the U.K., sailing in the westbound Convoy ONS 34* (originated in Liverpool Oct. 14), along with Dagrun and Lago. Danio arrived Pugwash on Nov. 2, having detached from the convoy the day before. In Dec.-1944/Jan.-1945 she was in Leith unloading the lumber, having arrived the U.K. on Dec. 16 with the Sydney, C. B. portion of the slow Convoy SC 162, which had left Sydney on Dec. 3.

She subsequently went back to New York in ballast in Convoy ONS 40*, which originated in Liverpool on Jan. 12-1945, again with several Norwegian ships in its ranks, namely Iron Baron, Lago, Norvarg, Orwell, Romulus, Solstad, Sommerstad (returned), Vera and Vinga. Danio arrived New York on Febr. 2 where she took on board a cargo for Liverpool according to the 1st mate, but as can be seen in the Voyage Record (and Page 4), she first headed to San Juan, Macoris and Guantanamo Bay, before returning to New York, then on to Boston. This brings us to Apr.-1945. From Boston, she proceeded to Halifax where she joined the slow Convoy SC 174* on Apr. 28 in order to sail to Liverpool, where she arrived May 15 (cargo of sugar, station 22); in other words, VE Day was celebrated while at sea. The Norwegian Gausdal, Hilda Knudsen, Norse Lady, Para, Peik, Stirlingville, Veni and Vera are also listed. At the end of that month she headed to Montreal (no convoy necessary this time!), where she loaded a general cargo for Norway. According to the 1st mate she arrived Oslo at the beginning of July (as the first ship from Canada after the war had ended), however, this date does not quite agree with the information found on the archive document referred to above, though it's possible some voyages are missing there. H. Hjertaker took over as captain of the ship at this time.

Danio subsequently returned to Canada to pick up more lumber for the U.K., and then made a few voyages for The Norwegian State making, among others, a voyage to West Africa for coffee, cocoa beans and nuts, which were discharged in Sandefjord, Fredrikstad and Oslo, Norway (according to H. Hjertaker). Page 4 and Page 5 have more information on her 1945 voyages, as well as some 1946 voyages.

* All the ON convoys and ONS convoys mentioned here will be added to individual pages in my Convoys section in due course, with more information on each; in the meantime, the ships sailing in them (and escorts) are named in the section listing ships in all ON convoys and ships in all ONS convoys. The entire SC series will also be updated and completed (including the already existing convoys - some have already been updated), but for now, please see ships in all SC convoys. Additionally, the KMS convoys will be added, see ships in all KMS convoys.

For more information on all the other Norwegian ships mentioned on this page, please see the alphabet index below, or go to the Master Ship Index.


Sold on May 12-1948 to D/S Patria A/S (Oluf Skjelbred Knudsen), Kristiansand. In liner service Chile-U.S East Coast. To D/S A/S Patria II P/R on Dec. 28-1948. Purchased by P/R Canasta, Haugesund on Aug. 26-1950, (H. Krohn Brekke) and renamed Canasta. Sold on March 7-1952 to Partsrederei M/S Michael (Holsten Reederei GmbH), and registered under the German flag as Michael. Company name changed to Holsten Reederei, Lenth & Co. in 1956. Sold in Oct.-1958 to Eisen & Metal K. G. Lehr & Co., Hamburg for breaking up. Resold in Febr.-1960 to Eiich Drechser. Returned to Eisen & Metal in May-1960 and broken up.

External links related to the text on this page:
Hyperwar - Scroll down to Oct. 23.

The Italian Campaign

The Defense of Italy

Back to Danio on the "Ships starting with D" page.

Clemeth Dann later had another ship by this name, ex Liberty Ship Nathaniel Alexander, built 1942, 7177 gt. Became Norwegian Solfa in Aug.-1947 (H. Rich. Aass, Oslo), from 1948 managed by Einar Rasmussen & Alfred I. Thommesen, Kristiansand S. Became Norse Lady for Odd Godager in 1950, then Danio for Clemeth Dann, Oslo in 1953. Sailed as Troyan under Lebanese flag from 1962 (Wigham Richardson & Co, London). On a voyage Kosseir-Whampoa with cargo of phosphate she arrived Colombo on Aug. 1-1967, leaking and flooded with hull plating fractures. Repaired and continued voyage. Broken up in Singapore in March-1968, having arrived on Oct. 29-1967. (This info found in "Liberty Ships in Peacetime, and their Contribution to World Shipping History" I. G. Steward, 1992).

The text on this page was compiled with the help of: "Våre motorskip", Leif M. Bjørkelund & E. H. Kongshavn, "Nortraships flåte", J. R. Hegland, "Sjøfolk i krig", Leif M. Bjørkelund, and misc. - ref. My sources.


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