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M/S Oregon Express
Updated Sept. 10-2010

To Oregon Express on the "Ships starting with O" page.

Crew List

Kindly sent to me by visitors to my site, Carrie & Michael McClure who bought the picture at an estate sale and ended up on my website when trying to find information on the ship. (This is a photograph of that picture).

Another picture is available at - external link.

Owner: Skibs-A/S Ekspress
Manager: Sigurd Herlofsen & Co. A/S, Oslo
3642 gt, 2176 net, 3210 tdwt
Signal Letters: LGNX

Built by Odense Staalskibsværft/A.P. Møller, Odense, Denmark in 1933. Fruit carrier, which operated for Skibs-A/S Fruit Express Line.

Captain: Ragnar M. Walsig

Related items on this website:
Warsailor Stories - A letter from Birger Lunde to BBC; an account of his wartime experiences on misc. Norwegian ships. His letter includes an account of the sinking of Oregon Express.
Guestbook message (in Norwegian) from a relative of Ole Thorvik, one of the survivors of Oregon Express.

Her voyages are listed on these original images from the Norwegian National Archives:
Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4 | Page 5

Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.

  Voyage Record
From Apr.-1942 to Sept.-1943:  

(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).

Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each.

Errors may exist, and as can be seen, several voyages are missing from this record (including all 1940 and 1941 voyages).

Departure From To Arrival Convoy Remarks
1942 Apr. 12 Cristobal Barranquilla Apr. 13 Independent Earlier voyages:
Page 1, Page 2, Page 3 & Page 4
Apr. 15 Barranquilla New York City Apr. 24 Independent
May 6 New York City Liverpool May 20 Independent
May 27 Liverpool New York City June 6 Independent
June 13 New York City Liverpool June 24 Independent Missing movements, Page 4
June 28 Liverpool New York City July 10 Independent See also narrative below
July 17 New York City Liverpool July 28 Independent Missing movements, Page 4
Aug. 23 Liverpool New York City Sept. 4 Independent
Sept. 7 New York City Liverpool Sept. 18 Independent On to Manchester, Page 4
Sept. 25 Liverpool New York City Oct. 6 Independent Again, see also narrative below
Oct. 11 New York City Liverpool Oct. 23 Independent Missing movements, Page 4
Nov. 2 Liverpool New York City Nov. 13 Independent
Nov. 17 New York City Liverpool Nov. 30 Independent
Dec. 13 Liverpool St. John, N.B. Dec. 27 Independent
Dec. 30 St. John, N.B. Halifax Dec. 31 Independent
1943 Jan. 1 Halifax Liverpool Jan. 11 Independent Missing movements, Page 5
Jan. 29 Liverpool Halifax Febr. 9 Independent
Febr. 18 Halifax Liverpool Febr. 28 Independent Missing movements, Page 5
March 15 Liverpool Halifax March 25 Independent
Apr. 8 Halifax Liverpool Apr. 21 HX 233 3 Passengers
Missing movements, Page 5.
May 6 Liverpool New York City May 21 ON 182 Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
May 31 New York City New York City June 2 HX 242 Returned
June 7 New York City Liverpool June 20 HX 243 Missing movements, Page 5
July 1 Liverpool New York City July 15 ON 191 Convoy will be added.
See link above
July 19 New York City Liverpool July 30 Independent Missing movements, Page 5
Aug. 8 Liverpool Halifax Aug. 20 ON 196 For Halifax.
Convoy will be added.
See link above
Aug. 29 Halifax Liverpool* Sept. 11 HX 254 *Page 5 gives arrival Manchester
Sept. 15 Liverpool ON 202 Sunk - See "Final Fate" below

 Misc. WW II: 

As will be seen when going to Page 1 of the archive documents, Oregon Express arrived Los Angeles on Apr. 8-1940, the day before the German invasion of Norway. Departure is given as Apr. 30, when she proceeded to Balboa. Her 1941 voyages start on Page 2 and continue on Page 3, which also shows a few 1942 voyages.

That summer, she rescued 96 (97?) passengers and crew from 2 lifeboats from the British Waiwera, which had been torpedoed and sunk by U-754 on June 29-1942, and took them to New York - the external website that I've linked to below has more on the attack on this ship. According to Page 4 of the archive documents, Oregon Express had left Mersey on June 28 and arrived New York July 10 (heading back to Liverpool a week later).

She reported being chased by a U-boat in the afternoon of Sept. 30-1942, position 51 55N 39 02W, and again 3 hours later further west. Having posted a query on my Ship Forum, I've learned that the U-boat was U-582 (Schulte), which had sunk Vibran a week earlier - see this external page (F.d.U./B.d.U.'S War Log - U-boat Archive website) and scroll down to 30 September 1942, where it says 'U 582 chased "Oregon Express" in AJ 9983, course 2400, 15 knots. Forced to sheer off by 2 destroyers that met the steamer'. Going back to the archive document mentioned above, we learn that she was on another voyage to New York at the time, having left Mersey on Sept. 25; she arrived New York on Oct. 6. According to (also external link), this U-boat was sunk with all hands just a few days later by an American Catalina aircraft.

What follows has been extracted from Birger Lunde's letter, mentioned at the beginning of this page:
"After physically recovering from the ordeal of the Blink, I signed on the S/S Oregon Express as 2nd Mate and wireless operator. I had lost most of my clothes, and money on the Blink and living in N.Y. was very expensive so I had to get back to the sea as quickly as possible. This ship was a refrigerated vessel and designed to carry perishable cargoes. She was fast and could do 15 knots. For over a year we made fast trips from N.Y. to England carrying meat. Because of our speed we did not travel in convoys. The ship also carried passengers and on one enjoyable voyage carried 12 Canadian Nurses to England. One of my fondest memories is a life boat drill we conducted with the nurses. For the sake of "realistic training" one sunny warm day while in harbor we actually launched the life boats with the nurses on board. We hadn't actually cleared this with the captain, however once the nurses began to sing "row, row, your boat" it seemed the natural thing to do. What followed was even more interesting when the captain began to blow the whistle for us to return, something I told the crew to ignore and we went on to have a really nice sail. Back on board I was chewed out, but things calmed down when the head nurse thanked the captain for the wonderful outing. He was mainly mad that he had not been included.

It was on the Oregon Express that I experienced a "sea chase". For one whole day a surfaced submarine followed close on our heels. The sea was rough and we could see the submarine several miles behind us, cresting and crashing through waves. The Oregon Express maintained her speed and when darkness came we changed course. As radio operator I wired a message that we were being chased by a submarine. That night while on watch I heard a large plane passing overhead. It was searching for the submarine. We never heard if it found it. All we knew was that in the morning the submarine was no longer chasing us.

On one voyage to New York our look out spotted a lifeboat. We stopped and were able to rescue 48 crew and passengers from the British ship Waiwera. They told us that they had been torpedoed the day before and that there was another life boat but during the night they had lost sight of each other. We searched for 2 hours and finally our excellent look out spotted the other lifeboat. We picked up another 48 passengers and headed on to New York. We were able to make them fairly comfortable and they were incredibly grateful to us. Among the passengers were several Australian Air Force pilots who gave us their sheep skin coats. This is one incident that Norwegian historians or journalist did not document.

Interestingly, years later I forgot the name of the ship. I wrote the British Ministry of Defense. I got a wonderful letter back from the Naval Staff Duties Historical Section. Because all I could remember was that the ship carried butter they searched the files for a cross reference. They were able to find a small note from the Admiralty that the Oregon Express had picked up survivors from the Waiwera. Actually the note was a letter complaining that we should have informed the Admiralty immediately of the rescue. All I can say is that the last thing we would have done with all those people on board and a submarine in the area was to break radio silence.

On another occasion we were invited to a party ashore in Liverpool. The first mate suggested we raid the Oregon Express's refrigerated hold and bring a side of beef to the party. The mate who was a good friend of mine and very strong threw the whole side of beef on his shoulder and started up the pier. As we approached the roadway a couple of policeman quickly grabbed us and pulled us back inside the pier. They told us that so starved was the city that simply seeing the meat could spark a riot. It put things in perspective, someone was trying to starve England and I realized then what each voyage meant."

Related external link:
The attack on Waivera

 Some Convoy Voyages – 1943: 
Follow the links provided for more convoy information; many Norwegian ships took part. Because of her speed, Oregon Express usually sailed without convoy, but she's listed as taking part in the following:

Arnold Hague has included her in Convoy HX 233, which originated in New York on Apr. 6-1943. As will be seen when following the link to my own page about this convoy, she's not mentioned there, but according to A. Hague she joined the convoy from Halifax, and this may be the reason for the omission (the page will be updated, in the meantime, see A. Hague's listing for HX 233) - from Page 5 we learn that she sailed from Halifax on Apr. 8 and arrived Liverpool on the 21st, proceeding from there to Manchester. The following month she's listed as bound for New York in the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 182*, which left Liverpool on May 6 and arrived New York on the 22nd and also included Dageid, Fernwood, Gallia, Germa, Hiram, Ivaran, Skiensfjord, Thorshov, Thorshøvdi and Villanger. Some of these ships, including Oregon Express, later joined Convoy HX 242, leaving New York on May 31. However, according to the Commodore's notes for this convoy, she returned to New York with engine defects at 10:00Z on June 1, 40 03N 69 52W, and subsequently joined the next convoy on June 7, HX 243. She had a general cargo and sailed in station 91; her destination is given as Manchester, where she arrived June 21. There's an Electrician Halfdan Stoltenberg commemorated at the memorial for seamen in Stavern, Norway (link at the end of this page); he's said to have died at sea on June 12-1943 following an illness, in other words, while she was on this voyage from New York to the U.K.

At the beginning of July we find her, together with Heranger, Kronprinsessen, Molda, Salamis, Spinanger and the Panamanian Norbris (Norwegian managers) in the westbound Convoy ON 191*, departing Liverpool on July 1, arriving New York on the 15th. She headed back to the U.K. again just 4 days later, arriving Liverpool on July 30, Manchester the next day, then appears, with destination Halifax, in the westbound Convoy ON 196*, which left Liverpool on Aug. 8 and arrived New York on the 21st; Oregon Express arrived her destination on Aug. 20. Athos, California Express, Fjordaas, Gefion, Hardanger, Montevideo (Commodore Vessel), Mosli, Roald Amundsen, Skotaas and Trondheim are also listed. At the end of that month, she joined Convoy HX 254 (Halifax section, departing Aug. 29), bound for Manchester with refrigerated and general cargo, station 74, arriving Manchester on Sept. 11 (Page 5).

* The ON convoys will be added to individual pages in my Convoys section in due course, along with further details on each. In the meantime, the ships sailing in them (and escorts) are named in the section listing ships in all ON convoys.

More information on all the other Norwegian ships mentioned here is available via the alphabet index at the end of this page, or go to the Master Ship Index.

 Final Fate - 1943: 

Just a few days after arrival U.K. with Convoy HX 254, Oregon Express joined the westbound Convoy ON 202 in order to return to Halifax. This convoy, which left Liverpool on Sept. 15, and Convoy ONS 18, which had departed Liverpool on Sept. 12, were sailing close to each other on Sept. 20 when a battle started. Please go to ON 202 / ONS 18 for more detailed information. The Commodore's report is also available, as are several other reports on the passage (Oregon Express is mentioned on both pages), and here's an analysis from a visitor to my website. See also the external links at the end of this page.

At this time several U-boats had been sent out from their base in France. The first Zaunkönig torpedo was put into action on Sept. 20, the British frigate Lagan its victim, then two American Liberty ships were hit by "ordinary" torpedoes. By then the two convoys were so close together that it was decided to merge them into one convoy. Also, a Canadian support group was ordered to come to their assistance. Two Zaunkönig torpedoes finished off the Canadian destroyer St. Croix and a third blew the British corvette Polyanthus to bits. Survivors were rescued by the British frigate Itchen (and Narcissus?) but Itchen was also hit by a Zaunkönig on the 23rd. Out of the crews of the three escorts only 3 were rescued (by the Polish Wisla).

Oregon Express had departed Manchester in ballast at 18:00 on Sept. 14 for Halifax and passed Rock Light, Liverpool at 12:20 on Sept. 15. The pilot disembarked at 14:45 near Bar Lightship and Oregon Express took position No. 84 in the middle of Convoy ON 202, but was moved after a few days to station 103, which was in the outermost column on the starboard side. She had a crew of 43 and 4 gunners. M/S Skjelbred had station No. 102, in other words, she was sailing right in front of Oregon Express. They joined up with Convoy ONS 18 in the afternoon of Sept. 20. At 22:15 on Sept. 22 a powerful explosion was heard on the port side and, as it looked as if a ship had been torpedoed the alarm was sounded, but after about half an hour everything was quiet again.

At 00:11 on Sept. 23 ship No. 102 was hit by a torpedo (Skjelbred) and at 00:13 No. 94 (Fort Jemseg) was struck - the position at this point is given as 53 40N 39 50W - then at 00:15 a torpedo from U-238 (Hepp) hit Oregon Express in the engine room, starboard side, exploding with tremendous force, and she listed heavily to port (Page 5 of the archive documents gives the time as 02:18; I'm not sure which time zone is used here). On the bridge were Captain Ragnar Walsig, 2nd Mate Birger Lunde (whose harrowing account of fight for survival in Febr.-1942 can be found on my page about D/S Blink), helmsman B. Rasmussen and the lookout H. Kalleberg. The latter was crushed between blocks of concrete and debris when the bridge area collapsed; the rest managed to dig themselves out and get down to the boatdeck. The helmsman had attempted to get Kalleberg free, but had to abandon his efforts and just leave him there. In the engine room were 3rd Engineer Jacob Sommerseth and Mechanic Hans Andersen, both killed in the explosion.

The explosion destroyed all the cabins amidships, as well as the rescue equipment on the boatdeck except for a raft which was situated on the deck above the mates' cabins, but both lifeboats on the poop deck were successfully launched, 1 became filled with water, the other had only a few men. The ship broke in 2 and sank in 3 minutes. Many people had been blown overboard by the explosion. The sea was full of oil and debris, but in the middle of it all those who had succeeded in getting into the 2 lifeboats fished others out of the water until 25 men were in the boats, while 11, including the injured captain, the cook, the steward, the helmsman and the 1st and 2nd mates managed to get themselves on the raft that had floated free. 6 injured men were later moved from the raft to one of the lifeboats.

At 00:45 D/S Kingman, captain Fredrik Matzen (Ex Danish Tutta, Panamanian flag?) and the Norwegian Romulus left their places in the convoy and started to pick up survivors, Kingman picking up 36 and Romulus 1 (Able Seaman Hallgeir Johansen) from Oregon Express, as well as 21 survivors from the torpedoed British Fort Jemseg. 8 were missing from Oregon Express. By 02:00 all the survivors from the raft and the 2 lifeboats were on board Kingman, all in very bad condition with varying degrees of injuries - an able seaman named Perrat on Kingman is mentioned in a report with gratitude for his "excellent medical care" during that first night and also later (due to the continuous U-boat attacks no doctor could be transferred to Kingman right away). The Danish Captain Matzen says in a report that Oregon Express' Captain Walsig was placed in his own cabin on Kingman, soaking wet and covered in oil. He had been struck across his hips by the concrete bridge protection as it collapsed and was in great pain. 11 others were also injured; ranging from a broken hip, a broken collar bone, broken ribs, a crushed knee and internal injuries, to a broken back. 1 had a dislocated shoulder, several had broken arms and swollen arms and legs. 2 rafts were constructed out of old hatches and placed on Hatch No. 4 with the intention of placing the most seriously injured men on them so that they would have a chance of survival in case Kingman should be torpedoed too. However, they suffered so badly while being transferred to these rafts that the idea was abandoned.

Kingman caught up with the convoy in the morning of Sept. 23. On Sept. 26 at 12:00 the destroyer escort HMCS Richmond (G 88) came alongside and placed a doctor and an assistant on board Kingman to further treat the wounded, before leaving again on Sept. 27 at 13:15. Kingman arrived Halifax on Sept. 29 at 15:00, and the injured were taken to Camp Hill Hospital in ambulances.

An inquiry was held in Halifax on Oct 1-1943 with the captain, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd mates, and Able Seaman Rasmussen (helmsman) appearing. The 1st mate said he had seen the saloon girl come out on the boatdeck just as the explosion occurred, but he did not see her afterwards.

1 survivor from Oregon Express is said to have been landed in New York on Oct. 2 - this may have been Able Seaman Hallgeir Johansen, picked up by Romulus? The captain is said to have arrived New York on Oct. 5.

With regard to the sinking of Oregon Express, Birger Lunde says:
"The Oregon Express met her fate ironically in a convoy trip. In 1943 the U-Boats had a new weapon to try out. This new weapon was an "acoustic torpedo". It was designed to be guided to a ship by the sound of the ships propellers. While in Convoy we were always given instructions to never stop, no matter what happened. On one voyage as we entered the area of the atlantic outside the range of shore aircraft the convoy was attacked. On the first night one of the escort vessels was torpedoed, a second escort went to its aid and was also sunk. The remaining escorts somehow drove the submarines off, putting an end to an ugly night.

On the second night a U-Boat got close enough to fire four of these acoustic torpedoes. We were stationed on the outside of the Convoy. Suddenly the third ship in front of us exploded, this was followed by the second and then the ship directly in front of us. I was on the bridge with the Captain and we had to steer to avoid the wreckage of the ship in front of us. As we turned the Oregon Express got it. The bridge which was heavily weighted with protective sand bags collapsed. I came to and helped the captain off the bridge. Things were happening so fast that we actually stepped off the bridge directly into the sea.

I found myself hurt and in the sea surrounded by wreckage. All around us vessels were shooting star shells, and there was a general chaos. All of us had life belts equipped with red lights. In the water around me almost a hundred small lights were bobbing. The chances of rescue were not good as the Convoy had lost two escort vessels. Suddenly, a Danish ship stopped dead in the water and turned on search lights! The Captain put down nets and proceeded to rescue all of us who were in the water. He picked up more survivors then there were places in the ship's life boats. As a precaution wounded like myself were placed on the ships hatch covers so that if the ship sank we would float off. Later, I would learn that the Danish ship was an ammunition ship. When I tell people about the Danish ship stopping against orders to save us they are always amazed. But they don't understand the strong feelings of community and friendship among sailors. The night before the attack two of our escort ships were torpedoed and sunk. There were no rescue ships available.

I was transferred to a British Frigate that had a doctor. Then I returned with almost 1000 other survivors to Nova Scotia. All 1000 boarded a special train for New York. This was quite a trip as the train had only a small dining area. Once you got fed you lined up for your next meal. I was a walking mess of bandages and strapping material. In New York I would learn that in addition to several broken ribs, my collarbone was broken, my knee severely dislocated and my back severely injured."

He adds: "Despite the wounds the need for experienced officers was so great at this point that I was put on the SS Polarland as first mate." Again, see my Warsailor Stories section for his complete story.

 Ships sunk on Sept. 20th: 

The escorting HMCS St Croix was sunk by U-305 (Bahr), damaged earlier by the same U-boat. According to Charles Hocking (see My Sources) this destroyer was the former USS McCook which had been transferred to Canada under the Lend-Lease agreement, built 1919, 1190 gt. St. Croix (Lt. Commander A. H. Dobson) was hit by a torpedo during the 3rd assault on Sept. 20, sank from another hit later in the night. 5 officers and 75 ratings picked up by HMS Itchen. (He says all but 1 was lost when Itchen sank, yet under Itchen he says they were all lost). Casualty list available via the external link at the end of this page.

Frederick Douglass was sunk by U-645 (Ferro), damaged earlier by U-238 (Hepp) - No casualties, survivors picked up by Rescue Vessel Rathlin.

Theodore Dwight Weld sunk by U-238, some survivors picked up by Rathlin.

HMS Polyanthus (built 1940, 925 tons) sunk by U-952 (Hocking says 84 were lost, incl. Lt. J. G. Aitken [picked up by Itchen, died when this ship was sunk], 6 other officers and 77 ratings).

 Ships sunk on the 23rd: 

Oregon Express was sunk by U-238 (Hepp), position 53 40N 39 50W.

M/S Skjelbred was also sunk by U-238.

Fort Jemseg, also sunk by U-238 - survivors picked up by Northern Foam and Norwegian Romulus.

Itchen was sunk by U-666 (Engel). According to Charles Hocking 14 officers were lost, including Commander C. E. Bridgman. 134 ratings died, as did 5 officers and 75 ratings rescued from St. Croix. (3 survivors picked up by Polish Wisla, 1 of whom was from St. Croix).

Steel Voyager (Convoy ONS 18) sunk by U-952 (Curio). Survivors picked up by Renoncule and Morden.

 Ships damaged: 

HMS Lagan, built 1942, 1370 tons, damaged Sept. 20 by U-270 (Otto), taken in tow by tug Destiny (see this report) - total loss.

The American James Gordon Bennett was damaged by U-952, Sept. 23.

3 U-boats had been sunk and 3 damaged. Later developments in the north Atlantic showed that the Zaunkönig torpedoes were unsuccessful, and subsequent convoys crossed unharmed.

The Norwegian Elisabeth Bakke also witnessed this battle. Morgenen was also in ON 202, as were Samuel Bakke, Thorhild, Norsol, and Gylfe. In addition to Romulus, Ruth I and Stirlingville were in Convoy ONS 18. Again, see ON 202 / ONS 18.

Crew List:
*Olav Nilsen's other ships are listed on this external page.

Ragnar M. Walsig
1st Mate
Haakon Eidbo Hanssen
2nd Mate
Birger Lunde
3rd Mate
Peder Jørgensen
2nd Radio Operator
George A. Turner
Eiler Lund
Rangvald Renton
Able Seaman
Bjørn Rasmussen
Able Seaman
Hallgeir Johansen
Able Seaman
Hans Karlsen
Able Seaman
Nils Milvartsen
Able Seaman
Leif B. Wilhelmsen
Able Seaman
Sverre Helvik
Able Seaman
Arne Egge
Able Seaman
Ole Thorvik*
Able Seaman/Gunner
Per Sverre Paulsen
Able Seaman/Gunner
Karl Kristen Klausen
Ordinary Seaman/Gunner?
Olav Nilsen*
2nd Engineer
Peder Kristian Ødegaard
Ragnvald Klevstuhl
Rolf Dahle
Refrigerator Engineer
Ole Eriksen
Sigurd Opdahl
Finn Log
Thor Tepstad
Arthur B. Jensen
Olav Ljøstad
Isak Vestereng
Haakon Amundsen
Henry Highfield
Ludvik Lorentzen
Ole Thorvaldsen
Galley Boy
Ivar Thorsen
Mess Boy
William James Bull
Mess Boy
Peter Polson
Mess Boy
Edward Swain**
Saloon Boy
Olaf Hansen
+ 2 more?
*Guestbook message (in Norwegian) from a relative of Ole Thorvik.
**If old shipmates would like to contact Edward Swain, I can provide his daughter's E-mail address - my own address is at the bottom of this page. He also appears in the crew list for D/S Hill

Radio Operator
Rasmus Knutsen

Able Seaman
Hans Kalleberg

Able Seaman
Oskar Kipperberg

Able Seaman/Gunner
Finn Mikkelsen

1st Engineer
Georg Johannesen

3rd Engineer
Jacob Sommerseth

Hans Andersen

Saloon Girl
Asta Josephine Beyer
As mentioned, the 1st mate had seen the saloon girl come out on the boatdeck just as the explosion occurred, but he did not see her afterwards.

Related external links:
Stavern Memorial - Unfortunately, the website has just been updated, and the names are no longer listed. The only way to find them is by going to "Søk 2. verdenskrig" and entering each name in the search field for "Personer" on the page that comes up. There's a commemoration for Engineer Jakob L. Danielsen and I believe he's identical to the Jacob Sommerseth in my crew list above(?). There's also an Electrician Halfdan Stoltenberg commemorated at this memorial - he had died at sea on June 12-1943 following an illness. Oregon Express was on her way from New York to Liverpool on that date (see Page 5 and narrative above).

Convoys ONS-18/ON-202 - article.

Ships hit from Convoy ON 202 (and ONS 18).

Operations information for U-238

Torpedoes - Describes the Zaunkönig torpedo and others.
U-238 | U-270 | U-305 | U-666 | U-952

Casualties of St. Croix - From Ships of the Canadian Royal Navy lost in WW II, which also has the casualty lists of other vessels.

Back to Oregon Express on the "Ships starting with O" page.

This company later had another Oregon Express, built in 1945 at Öresundsvarvet A/B, Landskrona for Skibs-A/S Santa Martha (Sigurd Herlofsen & Co. A/S), Oslo.

The text on this page was compiled with the help of: Articles found in Issues No. 2 and No. 4 for 1974 of the magazine "Krigsseileren" (The War Sailor) and information found in a book called "Tilbakeblikk", published by "Sjøforsvarets Skytteravdelig for Handelsflåtens Veteranforening" in 1995, a veterans association for Norwegian gunners. This book was kindly sent to me by a former gunner, Gunnar Bakke, Norway. Also, "Sjøforklaringer fra 2. verdenskrig", Norwegian Maritime Museum, Volume II, and misc. - (see My sources)


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