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D/S Olaf Bergh
Updated Apr. 15-2012

To Olaf Bergh on the "Ships starting with O" page.

A picture is available on this external page (click in it to enlarge - see also this page on the same website).

Owner: Eie's Rederi A/S
Manager: Bergh & Helland (Harald Eie), Bergen
5811 gt

Built by Furness Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Haverton Hill, Middlesbrough in 1921. Previous name: Rigi until 1929.
According to the external website that I've linked to above she was delivered as Rigi in Jan.-1921 to A/S Uto (Camillo Eitzen & Co) Kristiania. Renamd Olaf Berg for Eie's Rederi A/S (Bergh & Helland), Bergen in Sept.-1929.

Related item on this website:
Forum message - From the grandson of Harald Bjørnsen, who sailed on this ship from Oct.-1941 to Aug.-1945.

Her voyages are listed on these original images from the Norwegian National Archives:
Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4 | Page 5 | Page 6

Please compare the above voyages with Arnold Hague's Voyage Record below.

  Voyage Record
From May-1940 to July-1945:  

(Received from Don Kindell - His source: The late Arnold Hague's database).

Follow the convoy links provided for more information on each.

Errors may exist, and some voyages are missing.

Departure From To Arrival Convoy Remarks
1940 May 28 St. John's, N.F. Halifax May 31 Independent Earlier voyages:
Page 1
May 31 Halifax Baltimore June 5 Independent
June 28 Baltimore Portland, Maine July 1 Independent
July 7 Portland, Maine Halifax July 9 Independent
July 23 Halifax Liverpool Aug. 7 HX 60 See also narrative below
(missing movements, Page 1)
Sept. 21 Liverpool OB 217 Dispersed Sept. 25.
Convoy available at OB 217
(external link)
Sept. 25 Dispersed from OB 217 Montreal Oct. 4 Independent
Oct. 12 Montreal Sydney, C.B. Oct. 16 Independent
Oct. 21 Sydney, C.B. HX 82 Straggled, Oct. 24
Oct. 24 Straggled from HX 82 St. John's, N.F. Oct. 26 Independent
Nov. 13 St. John's, N.F. Halifax Nov. 16 Independent
Nov. 17 Halifax Oban Dec. 1 HX 89 (Arrival Oban not given, Page 1).
Dec. 2 Oban Methil Dec. 5 WN 48 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
Dec. 6 Methil Hull Dec. 8 FS 354 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
1941 Febr. 2 Hull Methil Febr. 4 FN 398 (Again, see also Page 1).
Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
Febr. 6 Methil Loch Ewe Febr. 9 EN 68/1 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Febr. 13 Loch Ewe OB 285 Dispersed Febr. 17.
Convoy available at OB 285
(external link)
Febr. 17 Dispersed from OB 285 Halifax Febr. 28 Independent
* Febr. 20 Philadelphia New York City March 21 In tow
*The wrong departure date has been given here - it should be March 20 and voyage belongs below, inserted there. See also Page 1.
March 3 Halifax Independent Grounded off Ocean City, Maryland, March 7
March 16 Refloated Philadelphia March 17 Independent
* March 20 Philadelphia New York City March 21 In tow
*The above entry has been taken from above and date corrected.
July 8 New York City Halifax July 11 Independent
July 22 Halifax Belfast Lough Aug. 5 HX 140 See also narrative below
Aug. 7 Belfast Lough Milford Haven* Aug. 9 BB 58 *Swansea
(Page 1).
Convoy available at BB convoys
(external link)
Aug. 28 Swansea Milford Haven Aug. 28 Independent
Aug. 29 Milford Haven ON 11 Via Belfast Lough
(see Page 1 & Page 2).
For Hampton Roads.
Dispersed Sept. 11.
Sept. 11 Dispersed from ON 11 New York City Sept. 15 Independent
Oct. 10 New York City Halifax Oct. 13 Independent
Oct. 16 Halifax Liverpool Oct. 31 HX 155 Missing movements, Page 2.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in HX convoys
Dec. 1 Liverpool ON 42 For New Orleans.
Dispersed 47 44N 45 16W, Dec. 14.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Dec. 14 Dispersed from ON 42 New Orleans Dec. 25 Independent
1942 Jan. 27 New Orleans Halifax Febr. 7 Independent
Febr. 19 Halifax Belfast Lough March 6 HX 176 See also narrative below.
March 7 Belfast Lough Milford Haven March 8 BB 146 Convoy available at BB convoys
(external link)
March 10 Milford Haven Southampton March 12 WP 124 Convoy available at WP convoys
(external link - incomplete listing)
March 23 Solent Swansea March 25 PW 130 Convoy available via this page
(external link - incomplete listing)
March 30 Swansea Milford Haven March 30 Independent
Apr. 3 Milford Haven ON 83 For Mobile
(via Belfast Lough - Page 2).
Detached Apr. 18.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Apr. 18 Detached from ON 83 New York City Apr. 20 Independent
May 5 New York City Halifax May 7 Independent
May 10 Halifax Belfast Lough May 21 HX 189
May 23 Belfast Lough Swansea May 25 BB 177 Convoy available at BB convoys
(external link)
June 19 Swansea Milford Haven June 19 Independent
June 20 Milford Haven Freetown July 8 OS 32 For Middle East
(via Belfast Lough - Page 2).
Convoy available at OS 32
(external link)
July 12 Freetown Capetown July 29 Independent
July 30 Capetown Durban Aug. 4 Independent
Aug. 9 Durban Aden Aug. 25 Independent
Aug. 26 Aden Safaga Aug. 31 Independent Missing movements, Page 2
Sept. 14 Port Said Haifa Sept. 15 Independent
Sept. 28 Haifa Port Said Sept. 29 Independent Missing movements, Page 3
* Oct. 2 Capetown Trinidad Nov. 25 Independent
*Departure date should be Nov. 2 and, therefore, this voyage belongs below.
Oct. 11 Port Sudan Capetown Nov. 1 Independent (Had arrived Port Sudan Oct. 6,
see Page 3).
* Nov. 2 Capetown Trinidad Nov. 25 Independent See also narrative below.
*Entry taken from above and departure date corrected.
Dec. 3 Trinidad Gitmo Dec. 9 TAG 26 Convoy available at TAG convoys
(external link)
Dec. 9 Gitmo Baltimore Dec. 17 GN 26 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
1943 Jan. 15 Baltimore New York City Jan. 17 Independent
Jan. 19 New York City Gitmo Jan. 26 NG 338 Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
Jan. 26 Gitmo Trinidad Febr. 1 GAT 40 Convoy available at GAT convoys
(external link)
Febr. 3 Trinidad TB 4 Dispersed Febr. 20.
Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Febr. 20 Dispersed from TB 4 Capetown March 6 Independent
March 9 Capetown Durban March 14 CD 8 Convoy available via link above
March 17 Durban DN 25 Dispersed March 19.
Convoy available via link above
March 19 Dispersed from DN 25 Aden Apr. 5 Independent
Apr. 8 Aden Suez Apr. 15 Independent
Apr. 24 Suez Durban May 15 Independent
June 18 Durban Capetown June 22 DC 31 Convoy available via link above
June 25 Capetown CN 26 Dispersed June 27.
Convoy available via link above
June 27 Dispersed from CN 26 Buenos Aires July 17 Independent
July 29 Buenos Aires Rosario July 31 Independent
Aug. 6 Rosario Buenos Aires Aug. 8 Independent
Aug. 20 Buenos Aires Freetown Sept. 8 Independent
Sept. 23 Freetown SL 137 Rendezvoused w/MKS 26, Oct. 5.
Convoy available at SL 137
(external link)
Oct. 5 SL 137 & MKS 26 joined up Loch Ewe Oct. 16 SL 137/MKS 26 Convoy available at SL 137/MKS 26
(external link)
Stop at Loch Ewe not included, Page 3
Oct. 16 Loch Ewe Methil Oct. 18 WN 494 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
Oct. 19 Methil Southend Oct. 21 FS 1250 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
Again, see also Page 3.
Nov. 28 Southend Methil Nov. 30 FN 1190 Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
Nov. 30 Methil EN 313 Detached Dec. 2.
Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Dec. 2 Detached from EN 313 Barry Dec. 5 Independent
Dec. 12 Barry Milford Haven Dec. 12 Independent
Dec. 13 Milford Haven Belfast Lough Dec. 14 Independent
Dec. 26 Milford Haven* OS 63/KMS 37 *Should be Belfast Lough
(Page 4).
For Freetown.
Convoy split, Jan. 7-1944.
Available at OS 63/KMS 37
(external link)
1944 Jan. 7 Convoy split Freetown Jan. 17 OS 63 For Freetown.
Convoy available at OS 63
(external link)
Febr. 11 Freetown Dakar Febr. 15 SL 149 Freetown to Dakar.
Convoy available at SL 149
(external link)
Febr. 24 Dakar SL 150 Dakar to UK.
Rendezvoused w/MKS 41, March 3.
Convoy available at SL 150
(external link)
March 3 SL 150 & MKS 41 joined up Loch Ewe March 14 SL 150/MKS 41 Convoy available at SL 150/MKS 41
(external link)
March 15 Loch Ewe Methil March 16 WN 557 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
March 17 Methil Hull March 19 FS 1394 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
Apr. 4 Southend* Methil Apr. 6 FN 1317 *From Hull
(Page 4).
Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
Apr. 7 Methil Loch Ewe Apr. 9 EN 368 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Apr. 20 Loch Ewe New York City May 8 ON 233 Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
May 16 New York City NG 435 Detached May 22.
Convoy available at NG convoys
(external link)
May 22 Detached from NG 435 Ciudad Trujillo May 24 Independent Later arrived Macoris, May 31
(Page 4).
June 3 Macoris Gitmo June 5 Independent
June 7 Gitmo New York City June 14 GN 137 Convoy available at GN convoys
(external link)
June 24 New York City Loch Ewe July 10 HX 297
July 11 Loch Ewe Methil July 13 WN 606 Convoy available at WN convoys
(external link)
July 14 Methil Southend July 16 FS 1513 Convoy available at FS convoys
(external link)
See also Page 4
July 29 Southend Tyne July 30 FN 1433 Convoy available at FN convoys
(external link)
Aug. 5 Tyne Methil Aug. 6 FN 1439 Convoy available at link above
Aug. 8 Methil Loch Ewe Aug. 10 EN 419 Convoy available at EN convoys
(external link)
Aug. 10 Loch Ewe ON 248S For Sydney, C.B.
Detached Aug. 18.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Aug. 18 Detached from ON 248S Sorel Aug. 23 Independent To Quebec, Aug. 27
(Page 4).
Aug. 30 Red Islet Sydney, C.B. Sept. 3 QS 88 Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Sept. 3 Sydney, C.B. Belfast Sept. 17 HX 306
Sept. 28 Belfast Lough ON 256 Detached Oct. 8.
Convoy will be added.
See ships in ON convoys
Oct. 8 Detached from ON 256 Montreal Oct. 12 Independent
Oct. 19 Montreal Quebec Independent Arrived Oct. 19, left Oct. 23
(Page 4).
Oct. 24 Red Islet Sydney, C.B. Oct. 26 QS 99 Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Nov. 3 Sydney, C.B. Avonmouth Nov. 18 SC 160 From Sydney, C.B.
Nov. 26 Avonmouth Cardiff Nov. 26 Independent
Dec. 2 Cardiff Milford Haven Dec. 3 Independent
Dec. 4 Milford Haven OS 97/KMS 71 For Marseilles.
Dispersed 45 36N 11 40W, Dec. 7.
Convoy available at OS 97/KMS 71
(external link)
Dec. 7 Dispersed at 18:30 KMS 71G Convoy will be added.
See ships in KMS convoys
Dec. 8(?) Dispersed from KMS 71G Oran Dec. 12 Independent
Dec. 14 Oran Marseilles Dec. 17 OM 26 Convoy available via this page
(external link)
Dec. 28* Marseilles Lisbon Jan. 5-1945 Independent *Page 5 gives departure Dec. 26
(via Gibraltar, Dec. 31).
1945 Jan. 24 Lisbon Gibraltar Jan. 26 Independent
Jan. 26 Gibraltar Toulon Jan. 31 Independent
Febr. 10 Toulon Marseilles Febr. 10 Independent
Febr. 26 Marseilles Valencia Febr. 28 Independent
March 1 Valencia Cartagena March 4 Independent Compare w/Page 5
March 4 Cartagena Gibraltar Independent
March 6 Gibraltar Southend March 14 MKS 87G Convoy will be added.
See ships in MKS convoys
Apr. 7 Southend Port Talbot Apr. 10 TBC 121 Convoy available at TBC convoys
(external link)
June 5 Port Talbot Montreal June 19 Independent
July 2 Montreal Kirkwall July 13 Independent
July 13 Kirkwall Unknown Norwegian port* Independent *Page 5 indicates Trondheim
(also, missing voyages, w/more on Page 6).

 Misc. Convoy Voyages: 
For information on voyages made in between those mentioned here, please see the documents received from the National Archives of Norway and A. Hague's Voyage Record above. Follow the convoy links provided for further details; the Commodore's notes are also available for some of them and several Norwegian ships took part.

Early in the war in Norway, on May 14 and 15-1940, Olaf Bergh, with a cargo of ore, was at Fiskefjord near Tjeldsund, and was attacked by German bombers both days. She did not receive bad damages but the crew was sufficiently shaken up to request an escort for the voyage out. The British forces had no warships to spare just then, but the Norwegian Kvitøy took on the job of escorting Olaf Bergh to Harstad, where Svalbard II took over on May 17 for part of the way out, then Olaf Bergh continued west on her own and went to a British port. According to Page 1 of the archive documents, she arrived St. John's, N.F. on May 28, continuing to Halifax that same day; departure Harstad looks like May 21. She had previously arrived Norway from the U.S. in March, visiting misc. Norwegian ports (it'll also be noticed, that there's an indication she had been to Loddingen[?] for repairs, before heading to Fiskefjord, but date is difficult to decipher; looks like Apr. 4 or 6).

With a cargo of scrap steel for Middlesbrough, she was scheduled for the Halifax-U.K. Convoy HX 57 on July 11, but did not sail. She was also cancelled from HX 58 and HX 59, but eventually got away in Convoy HX 60 on July 23. Destination is now given as Manchester and she arrived there on Aug. 13. The following month, she's listed in Convopy OB 217, leaving Liverpool on Sept. 21, dispersed on the 25th, Olaf Bergh arriving Montreal on Oct. 4. The Norwegian Tancred is also listed; ref. external link provided within the Voyage Record. Later that month, she joined the Sydney, C.B. portion of Convoy HX 82, cargo of grain for Methil, but according to A. Hague, she became a straggler on Oct. 24. She went into St. John's, N.F. on Oct. 25, proceeding to Halifax on Nov. 13, joining Convoy HX 89 from there on the 17th. She arrived Methil Roads on Dec. 5, continuing to Hull the next day, with arrival Dec. 8 and as will be seen when going back to Page 1, she subsequently spent a long time there; departure is given as Febr. 2-1941, when she returned to Methil.

She's later listed, along with Abraham Lincoln and Vav, in Convoy OB 285, which originated in Liverpool on Febr. 11-1941 and dispersed on the 17th. Her destination is not given, but from the archive document mentioned above, we learn that she arrived Halifax on Febr. 28, having started out from Loch Ewe on the 13th. It'll be noticed that she later had a long stay in New York. According to A. Hague, she had run aground off Ocean City on March 7 but was refloated on the 16th and sailed to Philadelphia, where she arrived March 17. 3 days later she was towed to New York, arriving March 21 and did not leave again until July 8, when she proceeded to Halifax, joining Convoy HX 140 from there on July 22 (having been cancelled from HX 139 on July 16). Other Norwegian ships were Madrono, Boreas, Brasil, Velox, Velma, Alaska, Stiklestad, Vardefjell, Evita, Thorshov, Skiensfjord, Ferncastle, Thorshavet, Bonneville and Helgøy. Beth and Petter were also initially in this convoy but left due to engine problems. A. Hague has also included Bur and Chr. Th. Boe, joining from Iceland. Olaf Bergh had a cargo of steel and scrap for Swansea, where she arrived Aug. 9. At the end of that month we find her in station 26 of the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 11, bound for Hampton Roads. According to Page 2, she arrived New York on Sept. 15, the convoy having been dispersed on Sept. 11.

Arnold Hague has her returning to the U.K. with a cargo of steel in Convoy HX 155*, leaving Halifax on Oct. 16-1941, arriving Liverpool on the 31st - she continued to Manchester, where she arrived Nov. 4. Her last Trans-Atlantic convoy voyage that year was made with Convoy ON 42*, which left Liverpool on Dec. 1 and dispersed on the 14th, Olaf Bergh arriving New Orleans on Dec. 25. Both these convoys had several Norwegian ships, namely Fenja, Hada County, Høegh Scout, Slemdal, Stiklestad and Suderøy in HX 155, and Eidanger, Glittre, Kaldfonn, Kollbjørg, Norefjord, Nueva Granada, Slemdal, Tankekspress and Thorshov in ON 42.

She remained in New Orleans for about a month, before proceeding to Halifax on Jan. 27-1942 and was scheduled for Convoy HX 175 from there on Febr. 13, but instead joined Convoy HX 176, which left Halifax on Febr. 19 and arrived Liverpool on March 6; Olaf Bergh stopped at Belfast Lough that day. At the beginning of the following month she's listed as bound for Mobile, Alabama in Convoy ON 83*, which departed Liverpool on Apr. 4 and also included Emma Bakke, Katy (returned to port), Kong Haakon VII, Lynghaug, Norheim, Norsol, Polartank (all 3 returned), Siljestad and Tabor. Olaf Bergh arrived New York on Apr. 20; her arrival Mobile is not given on Page 2 of the archive docs (may not have gone there). She headed back to the U.K. again on May 10 in Convoy HX 189 from Halifax and arrived Swansea, via Belfast Lough, on May 25.

About a month later, she's listed in station 12 of Convoy OS 32, voyaging from Milford to Freetown and The Middle East with government stores and coal. This convoy started out in Liverpool on June 21 and arrived Freetown July 8 - follow the link provided in the table above for more convoy details. From Freetown, Olaf Bergh continued to Table Bay, Durban, Aden and Safaga; again, please see Page 2 of the archive documents.

According to this posting to my Ship Forum Olaf Bergh rescued the surviving crew from the British Llandilo on Nov. 7-1942 and landed them in Trinidad. This ship had been sunk by U-172 on Nov. 2 - ref. external link at the end of this page for more details. Here's a another forum posting, which includes the names of Llandilo's casualties (the thread starts with this query and has several responses). From Page 3, we learn that Olaf Bergh was on her way from Table Bay to Trinidad at the time, arriving Trinidad on Nov. 25. Her subsequent voyages are shown on the archive document; convoy information for some of these can be found in the Voyage Record.

Skipping now to the fall of 1943, when she's mentioned in Convoy SL 137 / MKS 26, bound for Loch Ewe, cargo of linseed and general. SL 137, in which Olaf Bergh took part, left Freetown on Sept. 23, joined up with Convoy MKS 26 from Gibraltar on Oct. 5 and arrived Liverpool on Oct. 17 (Olaf Bergh stopped at Loch Ewe, Oct. 16, according to A. Hague). The Norwegian Drammensfjord and Jenny are also listed. Olaf Bergh is later included, along with Astrid, Belnor (returned), Norvarg, San Andres and Sirehei, in Convoy OS 63 / KMS 37*, voyaging from Belfast to Freetown. This convoy originated in Liverpool on Dec. 25 and split up on Jan. 7-1944, the Gibraltar portion arriving there that same day, while the OS convoy continued to Freetown, with arrival Jan. 17 - again, see Page 3, as well as Page 4. She left Freetown again for Dakar on Febr. 11, arriving Dakar on the 15th, having sailed in Convoy SL 149 (with Bosphorus - Commodore Vesssel - and Kong Haakon VII), then shows up in Convoy SL 150 / MKS 41*. The SL convoy had originated in Freetown on Febr. 21 and joined up with the MKS convoy from Gibraltar on March 3, the combined convoy arriving Liverpool on March 14. Olaf Bergh stopped at Loch Ewe that day, having sailed from from Dakar Febr. 24, cargo of groundnuts, also carrying 1 passenger. Bestik, Elg, Norvarg and Ragnhild are also named in the latter convoy. Links to all these convoys are available within the Voyage Record above.

The following month, she started making some voyages between the U.S. and U.K again. Together with Atlantic, Elg, Ferncliff, Kaia Knudsen, Norsktank, Slemmestad and Thorhild, she's named among the ships in the westbound North Atlantic Convoy ON 233*, which originated in Liverpool on Apr. 20 and arrived New York May 8. She headed back to the U.K. on June 24 with Convoy HX 297 from New York (Commodore in Brimanger), bound for Methil and London with a cargo of sugar, later returning across the Atlantic with the westbound Convoy ON 248(S)*, along with Gausdal, Glarona, Hardanger, Iron baron, Lago, Norvarg, Peik, Solstad, Vav, Villanger and Vinland (departure Liverpool Aug. 10, arrival New York Aug. 27). Her destination is given as Sydney, C.B.; according to Page 4, she arrived Sorel on Aug. 23, having started out from Loch Ewe on the 10th. She subsequently joined Convoy HX 306, which originated in New York on Aug. 31, but Olaf Bergh, cargo of grain, joined from Sydney, C.B. a few days later and arrived Belfast Sept. 17. We now find her, together with Abraham Lincoln (Commodore Vessel), Egerø, Fagerfjell, Ferncourt, Katy, Montevideo, Norsktank, Sørvard and Thorsholm, in the westbound Convoy ON 256*, departing Liverpool Sept. 28, arriving New York Oct. 12; Olaf Bergh, however, arrived Montreal that day, having sailed from Belfast Lough on Sept. 28. Early in Nov.-1944 she can be found in the Sydney, C.B. portion of Convoy SC 160, bound for Avonmouth with grain. Tunsberg Castle is named among the escorts, as is Buttercup, which came under the Norwegian flag following the loss of Tunsberg Castle shortly thereafter (ref. SC convoy escorts). Olaf Bergh arrived her destination on Nov. 18, according to Page 5.

The following month she's listed in Convoy OS 97 / KMS 71*, voyage Milford-Oran for Marseilles with coal in station 21 (link in Voyage Record). This convoy left Liverpool on Dec. 3 and split up on the 7th. Olaf Bergh arrived Oran on Dec. 12, left again on the 14th and arrived Marseilles on Dec. 17.

In March-1945 we find her in Convoy MKS 87*, departing Gibraltar on March 6, arriving Liverpool on the 14th. Alaska, Boreas and Elg are also listed.

As will be seen when going back to Page 5, she got to go home to Norway in the summer of 1945 and also that fall. See also Page 6.

* The ON convoys will be added to individual pages in my Convoys section in due course, along with further details on each. In the meantime, the ships sailing in them (and escorts) are named in the section listing ships in all ON convoys. Note also that the entire HX series will eventually be updated and completed, including the already existing convoys (some have already been updated); but for now, see ships in all HX convoys. The MKS and KMS convoys will also be added; see ships in all MKS convoys and ships in all KMS convoys.

More details on the other Norwegian ships mentioned on this page can be found with the help of the alphabet index below, or go to the Master Ship Index.


According to this external page, she was owend from 1950 by Deutscher Seeverkehr A/G Erich Lubbert & Co. (Helmut Thimm & Co.), Hamburg, renamed Reg I. From 1953, Schulte & Bruns, Hamburg, renamed Alfred Theodor. From 1957, as Joachim Schulte for Schiffahrtsges. mbh in Dortmund & Dollart Reederei GmbH (Schulte & Bruns), Dortmund. Sank in Kattegat on Apr. 10-1959 after having run into an unknown, sunken object when on a voyage Murmansk-Wismar.

Related external link:
The attack on Llandilo

Back to Olaf Bergh on the "Ships starting with O" page.

The text on this page was compiled with the help of: "Nortraships flåte", J. R. Hegland, "Skip og menn", Birger Dannevik, and misc. - (ref. My sources).


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